Root/docs/build.tex

1One of the biggest challenges to getting started with embedded devices is that you
2cannot just install a copy of Linux and expect to be able to compile a firmware.
3Even if you did remember to install a compiler and every development tool offered,
4you still would not have the basic set of tools needed to produce a firmware image.
5The embedded device represents an entirely new hardware platform, which is
6most of the time incompatible with the hardware on your development machine, so in a process called
7cross compiling you need to produce a new compiler capable of generating code for
8your embedded platform, and then use it to compile a basic Linux distribution to
9run on your device.
10
11The process of creating a cross compiler can be tricky, it is not something that is
12regularly attempted and so there is a certain amount of mystery and black magic
13associated with it. In many cases when you are dealing with embedded devices you will
14be provided with a binary copy of a compiler and basic libraries rather than
15instructions for creating your own -- it is a time saving step but at the same time
16often means you will be using a rather dated set of tools. Likewise, it is also common
17to be provided with a patched copy of the Linux kernel from the board or chip vendor,
18but this is also dated and it can be difficult to spot exactly what has been
19modified to make the kernel run on the embedded platform.
20
21\subsection{Building an image}
22
23OpenWrt takes a different approach to building a firmware; downloading, patching
24and compiling everything from scratch, including the cross compiler. To put it
25in simpler terms, OpenWrt does not contain any executables or even sources, it is an
26automated system for downloading the sources, patching them to work with the given
27platform and compiling them correctly for that platform. What this means is that
28just by changing the template, you can change any step in the process.
29
30As an example, if a new kernel is released, a simple change to one of the Makefiles
31will download the latest kernel, patch it to run on the embedded platform and produce
32a new firmware image -- there is no work to be done trying to track down an unmodified
33copy of the existing kernel to see what changes had been made, the patches are
34already provided and the process ends up almost completely transparent. This does not
35just apply to the kernel, but to anything included with OpenWrt -- It is this one
36simple understated concept which is what allows OpenWrt to stay on the bleeding edge
37with the latest compilers, latest kernels and latest applications.
38
39So let's take a look at OpenWrt and see how this all works.
40
41
42\subsubsection{Download OpenWrt}
43
44OpenWrt can be downloaded via subversion using the following command:
45
46\begin{Verbatim}
47$ svn checkout svn://svn.openwrt.org/openwrt/trunk openwrt-trunk
48\end{Verbatim}
49
50Additionally, there is a trac interface on \href{https://dev.openwrt.org/}{https://dev.openwrt.org/}
51which can be used to monitor svn commits and browse the source repository.
52
53
54\subsubsection{The directory structure}
55
56There are four key directories in the base:
57
58\begin{itemize}
59    \item \texttt{tools}
60    \item \texttt{toolchain}
61    \item \texttt{package}
62    \item \texttt{target}
63\end{itemize}
64
65\texttt{tools} and \texttt{toolchain} refer to common tools which will be
66used to build the firmware image, the compiler, and the C library.
67The result of this is three new directories, \texttt{build\_dir/host}, which is a temporary
68directory for building the target independent tools, \texttt{build\_dir/toolchain-\textit{<arch>}*}
69which is used for building the toolchain for a specific architecture, and
70\texttt{staging\_dir/toolchain-\textit{<arch>}*} where the resulting toolchain is installed.
71You will not need to do anything with the toolchain directory unless you intend to
72add a new version of one of the components above.
73
74\begin{itemize}
75    \item \texttt{build\_dir/host}
76    \item \texttt{build\_dir/toolchain-\textit{<arch>}*}
77\end{itemize}
78
79\texttt{package} is for exactly that -- packages. In an OpenWrt firmware, almost everything
80is an \texttt{.ipk}, a software package which can be added to the firmware to provide new
81features or removed to save space. Note that packages are also maintained outside of the main
82trunk and can be obtained from subversion using the package feeds system:
83
84\begin{Verbatim}
85$ ./scripts/feeds update
86\end{Verbatim}
87
88Those packages can be used to extend the functionality of the build system and need to be
89symlinked into the main trunk. Once you do that, the packages will show up in the menu for
90configuration. You would do something like this:
91
92\begin{Verbatim}
93$ ./scripts/feeds search nmap
94Search results in feed 'packages':
95nmap Network exploration and/or security auditing utility
96
97$ ./scripts/feeds install nmap
98\end{Verbatim}
99
100To include all packages, issue the following command:
101
102\begin{Verbatim}
103$ make package/symlinks
104\end{Verbatim}
105
106\texttt{target} refers to the embedded platform, this contains items which are specific to
107a specific embedded platform. Of particular interest here is the "\texttt{target/linux}"
108directory which is broken down by platform \textit{<arch>} and contains the patches to the
109kernel, profile config, for a particular platform. There's also the "\texttt{target/image}" directory
110which describes how to package a firmware for a specific platform.
111
112Both the target and package steps will use the directory "\texttt{build\_dir/\textit{<arch>}}"
113as a temporary directory for compiling. Additionally, anything downloaded by the toolchain,
114target or package steps will be placed in the "\texttt{dl}" directory.
115
116\begin{itemize}
117    \item \texttt{build\_dir/\textit{<arch>}}
118    \item \texttt{dl}
119\end{itemize}
120
121\subsubsection{Building OpenWrt}
122
123While the OpenWrt build environment was intended mostly for developers, it also has to be
124simple enough that an inexperienced end user can easily build his or her own customized firmware.
125
126Running the command "\texttt{make menuconfig}" will bring up OpenWrt's configuration menu
127screen, through this menu you can select which platform you're targeting, which versions of
128the toolchain you want to use to build and what packages you want to install into the
129firmware image. Note that it will also check to make sure you have the basic dependencies for it
130to run correctly. If that fails, you will need to install some more tools in your local environment
131before you can begin.
132
133Similar to the linux kernel config, almost every option has three choices,
134\texttt{y/m/n} which are represented as follows:
135
136\begin{itemize}
137    \item{\texttt{<*>} (pressing y)} \\
138        This will be included in the firmware image
139    \item{\texttt{<M>} (pressing m)} \\
140        This will be compiled but not included (for later install)
141    \item{\texttt{< >} (pressing n)} \\
142        This will not be compiled
143\end{itemize}
144
145After you've finished with the menu configuration, exit and when prompted, save your
146configuration changes.
147
148If you want, you can also modify the kernel config for the selected target system.
149simply run "\texttt{make kernel\_menuconfig}" and the build system will unpack the kernel sources
150(if necessary), run menuconfig inside of the kernel tree, and then copy the kernel config
151to \texttt{target/linux/\textit{<platform>}/config} so that it is preserved over
152"\texttt{make clean}" calls.
153
154To begin compiling the firmware, type "\texttt{make}". By default
155OpenWrt will only display a high level overview of the compile process and not each individual
156command.
157
158\subsubsection{Example:}
159
160\begin{Verbatim}
161make[2] toolchain/install
162make[3] -C toolchain install
163make[2] target/compile
164make[3] -C target compile
165make[4] -C target/utils prepare
166
167[...]
168\end{Verbatim}
169
170This makes it easier to monitor which step it's actually compiling and reduces the amount
171of noise caused by the compile output. To see the full output, run the command
172"\texttt{make V=99}".
173
174During the build process, buildroot will download all sources to the "\texttt{dl}"
175directory and will start patching and compiling them in the "\texttt{build\_dir/\textit{<arch>}}"
176directory. When finished, the resulting firmware will be in the "\texttt{bin}" directory
177and packages will be in the "\texttt{bin/packages}" directory.
178
179
180\subsection{Creating packages}
181
182One of the things that we've attempted to do with OpenWrt's template system is make it
183incredibly easy to port software to OpenWrt. If you look at a typical package directory
184in OpenWrt you'll find several things:
185
186\begin{itemize}
187    \item \texttt{package/\textit{<name>}/Makefile}
188    \item \texttt{package/\textit{<name>}/patches}
189    \item \texttt{package/\textit{<name>}/files}
190\end{itemize}
191
192The patches directory is optional and typically contains bug fixes or optimizations to
193reduce the size of the executable. The package makefile is the important item, provides
194the steps actually needed to download and compile the package.
195
196The files directory is also optional and typicall contains package specific startup scripts or default configuration files that can be used out of the box with OpenWrt.
197
198Looking at one of the package makefiles, you'd hardly recognize it as a makefile.
199Through what can only be described as blatant disregard and abuse of the traditional
200make format, the makefile has been transformed into an object oriented template which
201simplifies the entire ordeal.
202
203Here for example, is \texttt{package/bridge/Makefile}:
204
205\begin{Verbatim}[frame=single,numbers=left]
206
207include $(TOPDIR)/rules.mk
208
209PKG_NAME:=bridge
210PKG_VERSION:=1.0.6
211PKG_RELEASE:=1
212
213PKG_SOURCE:=bridge-utils-$(PKG_VERSION).tar.gz
214PKG_SOURCE_URL:=@SF/bridge
215PKG_MD5SUM:=9b7dc52656f5cbec846a7ba3299f73bd
216PKG_CAT:=zcat
217
218PKG_BUILD_DIR:=$(BUILD_DIR)/bridge-utils-$(PKG_VERSION)
219
220include $(INCLUDE_DIR)/package.mk
221
222define Package/bridge
223  SECTION:=net
224  CATEGORY:=Base system
225  TITLE:=Ethernet bridging configuration utility
226  URL:=http://bridge.sourceforge.net/
227endef
228
229define Package/bridge/description
230  Manage ethernet bridging:
231  a way to connect networks together to form a larger network.
232endef
233
234define Build/Configure
235    $(call Build/Configure/Default, \
236        --with-linux-headers="$(LINUX_DIR)" \
237    )
238endef
239
240define Package/bridge/install
241    $(INSTALL_DIR) $(1)/usr/sbin
242    $(INSTALL_BIN) $(PKG_BUILD_DIR)/brctl/brctl $(1)/usr/sbin/
243endef
244
245$(eval $(call BuildPackage,bridge))
246\end{Verbatim}
247
248As you can see, there's not much work to be done; everything is hidden in other makefiles
249and abstracted to the point where you only need to specify a few variables.
250
251\begin{itemize}
252    \item \texttt{PKG\_NAME} \\
253        The name of the package, as seen via menuconfig and ipkg
254    \item \texttt{PKG\_VERSION} \\
255        The upstream version number that we are downloading
256    \item \texttt{PKG\_RELEASE} \\
257        The version of this package Makefile
258    \item \texttt{PKG\_SOURCE} \\
259        The filename of the original sources
260    \item \texttt{PKG\_SOURCE\_URL} \\
261        Where to download the sources from (no trailing slash), you can add multiple download sources by separating them with a \\ and a carriage return.
262    \item \texttt{PKG\_MD5SUM} \\
263        A checksum to validate the download
264    \item \texttt{PKG\_CAT} \\
265        How to decompress the sources (zcat, bzcat, unzip)
266    \item \texttt{PKG\_BUILD\_DIR} \\
267        Where to compile the package
268\end{itemize}
269
270The \texttt{PKG\_*} variables define where to download the package from;
271\texttt{@SF} is a special keyword for downloading packages from sourceforge. There is also
272another keyword of \texttt{@GNU} for grabbing GNU source releases. If any of the above mentionned download source fails, the OpenWrt mirrors will be used as source.
273
274The md5sum (if present) is used to verify the package was downloaded correctly and
275\texttt{PKG\_BUILD\_DIR} defines where to find the package after the sources are
276uncompressed into \texttt{\$(BUILD\_DIR)}.
277
278At the bottom of the file is where the real magic happens, "BuildPackage" is a macro
279set up by the earlier include statements. BuildPackage only takes one argument directly --
280the name of the package to be built, in this case "\texttt{bridge}". All other information
281is taken from the define blocks. This is a way of providing a level of verbosity, it's
282inherently clear what the contents of the \texttt{description} template in
283\texttt{Package/bridge} is, which wouldn't be the case if we passed this information
284directly as the Nth argument to \texttt{BuildPackage}.
285
286\texttt{BuildPackage} uses the following defines:
287
288\textbf{\texttt{Package/\textit{<name>}}:} \\
289    \texttt{\textit{<name>}} matches the argument passed to buildroot, this describes
290    the package the menuconfig and ipkg entries. Within \texttt{Package/\textit{<name>}}
291    you can define the following variables:
292
293    \begin{itemize}
294        \item \texttt{SECTION} \\
295            The section of package (currently unused)
296        \item \texttt{CATEGORY} \\
297            Which menu it appears in menuconfig: Network, Sound, Utilities, Multimedia ...
298        \item \texttt{TITLE} \\
299            A short description of the package
300        \item \texttt{URL} \\
301            Where to find the original software
302        \item \texttt{MAINTAINER} (optional) \\
303            Who to contact concerning the package
304        \item \texttt{DEPENDS} (optional) \\
305            Which packages must be built/installed before this package. To reference a dependency defined in the
306            same Makefile, use \textit{<dependency name>}. If defined as an external package, use
307            \textit{+<dependency name>}. For a kernel version dependency use: \textit{@LINUX\_2\_<minor version>}
308        \item \texttt{BUILDONLY} (optional) \\
309            Set this option to 1 if you do NOT want your package to appear in menuconfig.
310            This is useful for packages which are only used as build dependencies.
311    \end{itemize}
312
313\textbf{\texttt{Package/\textit{<name>}/conffiles} (optional):} \\
314   A list of config files installed by this package, one file per line.
315
316\textbf{\texttt{Build/Prepare} (optional):} \\
317   A set of commands to unpack and patch the sources. You may safely leave this
318   undefined.
319
320\textbf{\texttt{Build/Configure} (optional):} \\
321   You can leave this undefined if the source doesn't use configure or has a
322   normal config script, otherwise you can put your own commands here or use
323   "\texttt{\$(call Build/Configure/Default,\textit{<first list of arguments, second list>})}" as above to
324   pass in additional arguments for a standard configure script. The first list of arguments will be passed
325   to the configure script like that: \texttt{--arg 1} \texttt{--arg 2}. The second list contains arguments that should be
326   defined before running the configure script such as autoconf or compiler specific variables.
327   
328   To make it easier to modify the configure command line, you can either extend or completely override the following variables:
329   \begin{itemize}
330     \item \texttt{CONFIGURE\_ARGS} \\
331         Contains all command line arguments (format: \texttt{--arg 1} \texttt{--arg 2})
332     \item \texttt{CONFIGURE\_VARS} \\
333         Contains all environment variables that are passed to ./configure (format: \texttt{NAME="value"})
334   \end{itemize}
335
336\textbf{\texttt{Build/Compile} (optional):} \\
337   How to compile the source; in most cases you should leave this undefined.
338   
339   As with \texttt{Build/Configure} there are two variables that allow you to override
340   the make command line environment variables and flags:
341   \begin{itemize}
342     \item \texttt{MAKE\_FLAGS} \\
343       Contains all command line arguments (typically variable overrides like \texttt{NAME="value"}
344     \item \texttt{MAKE\_VARS} \\
345       Contains all environment variables that are passed to the make command
346   \end{itemize}
347
348\textbf{\texttt{Build/InstallDev} (optional):} \\
349    If your package provides a library that needs to be made available to other packages,
350    you can use the \texttt{Build/InstallDev} template to copy it into the staging directory
351    which is used to collect all files that other packages might depend on at build time.
352    When it is called by the build system, two parameters are passed to it. \texttt{\$(1)} points to
353    the regular staging dir, typically \texttt{staging\_dir/\textit{ARCH}}, while \texttt{\$(2)} points
354    to \texttt{staging\_dir/host}. The host staging dir is only used for binaries, which are
355    to be executed or linked against on the host and its \texttt{bin/} subdirectory is included
356    in the \texttt{PATH} which is passed down to the build system processes.
357    Please use \texttt{\$(1)} and \texttt{\$(2)} here instead of the build system variables
358    \texttt{\$(STAGING\_DIR)} and \texttt{\$(STAGING\_DIR\_HOST)}, because the build system behavior
359    when staging libraries might change in the future to include automatic uninstallation.
360
361\textbf{\texttt{Package/\textit{<name>}/install}:} \\
362   A set of commands to copy files out of the compiled source and into the ipkg
363   which is represented by the \texttt{\$(1)} directory. Note that there are currently
364   4 defined install macros:
365   \begin{itemize}
366       \item \texttt{INSTALL\_DIR} \\
367           install -d -m0755
368       \item \texttt{INSTALL\_BIN} \\
369           install -m0755
370       \item \texttt{INSTALL\_DATA} \\
371           install -m0644
372       \item \texttt{INSTALL\_CONF} \\
373           install -m0600
374   \end{itemize}
375
376The reason that some of the defines are prefixed by "\texttt{Package/\textit{<name>}}"
377and others are simply "\texttt{Build}" is because of the possibility of generating
378multiple packages from a single source. OpenWrt works under the assumption of one
379source per package Makefile, but you can split that source into as many packages as
380desired. Since you only need to compile the sources once, there's one global set of
381"\texttt{Build}" defines, but you can add as many "Package/<name>" defines as you want
382by adding extra calls to \texttt{BuildPackage} -- see the dropbear package for an example.
383
384After you have created your \texttt{package/\textit{<name>}/Makefile}, the new package
385will automatically show in the menu the next time you run "make menuconfig" and if selected
386will be built automatically the next time "\texttt{make}" is run.
387
388\subsection{Creating binary packages}
389
390You might want to create binary packages and include them in the resulting images as packages.
391To do so, you can use the following template, which basically sets to nothing the Configure and
392Compile templates.
393
394\begin{Verbatim}[frame=single,numbers=left]
395
396include $(TOPDIR)/rules.mk
397
398PKG_NAME:=binpkg
399PKG_VERSION:=1.0
400PKG_RELEASE:=1
401
402PKG_SOURCE:=binpkg-$(PKG_VERSION).tar.gz
403PKG_SOURCE_URL:=http://server
404PKG_MD5SUM:=9b7dc52656f5cbec846a7ba3299f73bd
405PKG_CAT:=zcat
406
407include $(INCLUDE_DIR)/package.mk
408
409define Package/binpkg
410  SECTION:=net
411  CATEGORY:=Network
412  TITLE:=Binary package
413endef
414
415define Package/bridge/description
416  Binary package
417endef
418
419define Build/Configure
420endef
421
422define Build/Compile
423endef
424
425define Package/bridge/install
426    $(INSTALL_DIR) $(1)/usr/sbin
427    $(INSTALL_BIN) $(PKG_BUILD_DIR)/* $(1)/usr/sbin/
428endef
429
430$(eval $(call BuildPackage,bridge))
431\end{Verbatim}
432
433Provided that the tarball which contains the binaries reflects the final
434directory layout (/usr, /lib ...), it becomes very easy to get your package
435look like one build from sources.
436
437Note that using the same technique, you can easily create binary pcakages
438for your proprietary kernel modules as well.
439
440\subsection{Creating kernel modules packages}
441
442The OpenWrt distribution makes the distinction between two kind of kernel modules, those coming along with the mainline kernel, and the others available as a separate project. We will see later that a common template is used for both of them.
443
444For kernel modules that are part of the mainline kernel source, the makefiles are located in \textit{package/kernel/modules/*.mk} and they appear under the section "Kernel modules"
445
446For external kernel modules, you can add them to the build system just like if they were software packages by defining a KernelPackage section in the package makefile.
447
448Here for instance the Makefile for the I2C subsytem kernel modules :
449
450\begin{Verbatim}[frame=single,numbers=left]
451
452I2CMENU:=I2C Bus
453
454define KernelPackage/i2c-core
455  TITLE:=I2C support
456  DESCRIPTION:=Kernel modules for i2c support
457  SUBMENU:=$(I2CMENU)
458  KCONFIG:=CONFIG_I2C_CORE CONFIG_I2C_DEV
459  FILES:=$(MODULES_DIR)/kernel/drivers/i2c/*.$(LINUX_KMOD_SUFFIX)
460  AUTOLOAD:=$(call AutoLoad,50,i2c-core i2c-dev)
461endef
462$(eval $(call KernelPackage,i2c-core))
463\end{Verbatim}
464
465To group kernel modules under a common description in menuconfig, you might want to define a \textit{<description>MENU} variable on top of the kernel modules makefile.
466
467\begin{itemize}
468    \item \texttt{TITLE} \\
469        The name of the module as seen via menuconfig
470    \item \texttt{DESCRIPTION} \\
471        The description as seen via help in menuconfig
472    \item \texttt{SUBMENU} \\
473        The sub menu under which this package will be seen
474    \item \texttt{KCONFIG} \\
475        Kernel configuration option dependency. For external modules, remove it.
476    \item \texttt{FILES} \\
477        Files you want to inlude to this kernel module package, separate with spaces.
478    \item \texttt{AUTOLOAD} \\
479        Modules that will be loaded automatically on boot, the order you write them is the order they would be loaded.
480\end{itemize}
481
482After you have created your \texttt{package/kernel/modules/\textit{<name>}.mk}, the new kernel modules package
483will automatically show in the menu under "Kernel modules" next time you run "make menuconfig" and if selected
484will be built automatically the next time "\texttt{make}" is run.
485
486\subsection{Conventions}
487
488There are a couple conventions to follow regarding packages:
489
490\begin{itemize}
491    \item \texttt{files}
492    \begin{enumerate}
493        \item configuration files follow the convention \\
494        \texttt{\textit{<name>}.conf}
495        \item init files follow the convention \\
496        \texttt{\textit{<name>}.init}
497    \end{enumerate}
498    \item \texttt{patches}
499    \begin{enumerate}
500        \item patches are numerically prefixed and named related to what they do
501    \end{enumerate}
502\end{itemize}
503
504\subsection{Troubleshooting}
505
506If you find your package doesn't show up in menuconfig, try the following command to
507see if you get the correct description:
508
509\begin{Verbatim}
510  TOPDIR=$PWD make -C package/<name> DUMP=1 V=99
511\end{Verbatim}
512
513If you're just having trouble getting your package to compile, there's a few
514shortcuts you can take. Instead of waiting for make to get to your package, you can
515run one of the following:
516
517\begin{itemize}
518    \item \texttt{make package/\textit{<name>}/clean V=99}
519    \item \texttt{make package/\textit{<name>}/install V=99}
520\end{itemize}
521
522Another nice trick is that if the source directory under \texttt{build\_dir/\textit{<arch>}}
523is newer than the package directory, it won't clobber it by unpacking the sources again.
524If you were working on a patch you could simply edit the sources under the
525\texttt{build\_dir/\textit{<arch>}/\textit{<source>}} directory and run the install command above,
526when satisfied, copy the patched sources elsewhere and diff them with the unpatched
527sources. A warning though - if you go modify anything under \texttt{package/\textit{<name>}}
528it will remove the old sources and unpack a fresh copy.
529
530Other useful targets include:
531
532\begin{itemize}
533    \item \texttt{make package/\textit{<name>}/prepare V=99}
534    \item \texttt{make package/\textit{<name>}/compile V=99}
535    \item \texttt{make package/\textit{<name>}/configure V=99}
536\end{itemize}
537
538
539\subsection{Using build environments}
540OpenWrt provides a means of building images for multiple configurations
541which can use multiple targets in one single checkout. These \emph{environments}
542store a copy of the .config file generated by \texttt{make menuconfig} and the contents
543of the \texttt{./files} folder.
544The script \texttt{./scripts/env} is used to manage these environments, it uses
545\texttt{git} (which needs to be installed on your system) as backend for version control.
546
547The command
548\begin{Verbatim}
549  ./scripts/env help
550\end{Verbatim}
551produces a short help text with a list of commands.
552
553To create a new environment named \texttt{current}, run the following command
554\begin{Verbatim}
555  ./scripts/env new current
556\end{Verbatim}
557This will move your \texttt{.config} file and \texttt{./files} (if it exists) to
558the \texttt{env/} subdirectory and create symlinks in the base folder.
559
560After running make menuconfig or changing things in files/, your current state will
561differ from what has been saved before. To show these changes, use:
562\begin{Verbatim}
563  ./scripts/env diff
564\end{Verbatim}
565
566If you want to save these changes, run:
567\begin{Verbatim}
568  ./scripts/env save
569\end{Verbatim}
570If you want to revert your changes to the previously saved copy, run:
571\begin{Verbatim}
572  ./scripts/env revert
573\end{Verbatim}
574
575If you want, you can now create a second environment using the \texttt{new} command.
576It will ask you whether you want to make it a clone of the current environment (e.g.
577for minor changes) or if you want to start with a clean version (e.g. for selecting
578a new target).
579
580To switch to a different environment (e.g. \texttt{test1}), use:
581\begin{Verbatim}
582  ./scripts/env switch test1
583\end{Verbatim}
584
585To rename the current branch to a new name (e.g. \texttt{test2}), use:
586\begin{Verbatim}
587  ./scripts/env rename test2
588\end{Verbatim}
589
590If you want to get rid of environment switching and keep everything in the base directory
591again, use:
592\begin{Verbatim}
593  ./scripts/env clear
594\end{Verbatim}
595

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