Root/tools/perf/builtin-kmem.c

1#include "builtin.h"
2#include "perf.h"
3
4#include "util/util.h"
5#include "util/cache.h"
6#include "util/symbol.h"
7#include "util/thread.h"
8#include "util/header.h"
9#include "util/session.h"
10
11#include "util/parse-options.h"
12#include "util/trace-event.h"
13
14#include "util/debug.h"
15
16#include <linux/rbtree.h>
17
18struct alloc_stat;
19typedef int (*sort_fn_t)(struct alloc_stat *, struct alloc_stat *);
20
21static char const *input_name = "perf.data";
22
23static int alloc_flag;
24static int caller_flag;
25
26static int alloc_lines = -1;
27static int caller_lines = -1;
28
29static bool raw_ip;
30
31static char default_sort_order[] = "frag,hit,bytes";
32
33static int *cpunode_map;
34static int max_cpu_num;
35
36struct alloc_stat {
37    u64 call_site;
38    u64 ptr;
39    u64 bytes_req;
40    u64 bytes_alloc;
41    u32 hit;
42    u32 pingpong;
43
44    short alloc_cpu;
45
46    struct rb_node node;
47};
48
49static struct rb_root root_alloc_stat;
50static struct rb_root root_alloc_sorted;
51static struct rb_root root_caller_stat;
52static struct rb_root root_caller_sorted;
53
54static unsigned long total_requested, total_allocated;
55static unsigned long nr_allocs, nr_cross_allocs;
56
57#define PATH_SYS_NODE "/sys/devices/system/node"
58
59static void init_cpunode_map(void)
60{
61    FILE *fp;
62    int i;
63
64    fp = fopen("/sys/devices/system/cpu/kernel_max", "r");
65    if (!fp) {
66        max_cpu_num = 4096;
67        return;
68    }
69
70    if (fscanf(fp, "%d", &max_cpu_num) < 1)
71        die("Failed to read 'kernel_max' from sysfs");
72    max_cpu_num++;
73
74    cpunode_map = calloc(max_cpu_num, sizeof(int));
75    if (!cpunode_map)
76        die("calloc");
77    for (i = 0; i < max_cpu_num; i++)
78        cpunode_map[i] = -1;
79    fclose(fp);
80}
81
82static void setup_cpunode_map(void)
83{
84    struct dirent *dent1, *dent2;
85    DIR *dir1, *dir2;
86    unsigned int cpu, mem;
87    char buf[PATH_MAX];
88
89    init_cpunode_map();
90
91    dir1 = opendir(PATH_SYS_NODE);
92    if (!dir1)
93        return;
94
95    while ((dent1 = readdir(dir1)) != NULL) {
96        if (dent1->d_type != DT_DIR ||
97            sscanf(dent1->d_name, "node%u", &mem) < 1)
98            continue;
99
100        snprintf(buf, PATH_MAX, "%s/%s", PATH_SYS_NODE, dent1->d_name);
101        dir2 = opendir(buf);
102        if (!dir2)
103            continue;
104        while ((dent2 = readdir(dir2)) != NULL) {
105            if (dent2->d_type != DT_LNK ||
106                sscanf(dent2->d_name, "cpu%u", &cpu) < 1)
107                continue;
108            cpunode_map[cpu] = mem;
109        }
110    }
111}
112
113static void insert_alloc_stat(unsigned long call_site, unsigned long ptr,
114                  int bytes_req, int bytes_alloc, int cpu)
115{
116    struct rb_node **node = &root_alloc_stat.rb_node;
117    struct rb_node *parent = NULL;
118    struct alloc_stat *data = NULL;
119
120    while (*node) {
121        parent = *node;
122        data = rb_entry(*node, struct alloc_stat, node);
123
124        if (ptr > data->ptr)
125            node = &(*node)->rb_right;
126        else if (ptr < data->ptr)
127            node = &(*node)->rb_left;
128        else
129            break;
130    }
131
132    if (data && data->ptr == ptr) {
133        data->hit++;
134        data->bytes_req += bytes_req;
135        data->bytes_alloc += bytes_alloc;
136    } else {
137        data = malloc(sizeof(*data));
138        if (!data)
139            die("malloc");
140        data->ptr = ptr;
141        data->pingpong = 0;
142        data->hit = 1;
143        data->bytes_req = bytes_req;
144        data->bytes_alloc = bytes_alloc;
145
146        rb_link_node(&data->node, parent, node);
147        rb_insert_color(&data->node, &root_alloc_stat);
148    }
149    data->call_site = call_site;
150    data->alloc_cpu = cpu;
151}
152
153static void insert_caller_stat(unsigned long call_site,
154                  int bytes_req, int bytes_alloc)
155{
156    struct rb_node **node = &root_caller_stat.rb_node;
157    struct rb_node *parent = NULL;
158    struct alloc_stat *data = NULL;
159
160    while (*node) {
161        parent = *node;
162        data = rb_entry(*node, struct alloc_stat, node);
163
164        if (call_site > data->call_site)
165            node = &(*node)->rb_right;
166        else if (call_site < data->call_site)
167            node = &(*node)->rb_left;
168        else
169            break;
170    }
171
172    if (data && data->call_site == call_site) {
173        data->hit++;
174        data->bytes_req += bytes_req;
175        data->bytes_alloc += bytes_alloc;
176    } else {
177        data = malloc(sizeof(*data));
178        if (!data)
179            die("malloc");
180        data->call_site = call_site;
181        data->pingpong = 0;
182        data->hit = 1;
183        data->bytes_req = bytes_req;
184        data->bytes_alloc = bytes_alloc;
185
186        rb_link_node(&data->node, parent, node);
187        rb_insert_color(&data->node, &root_caller_stat);
188    }
189}
190
191static void process_alloc_event(void *data,
192                struct event *event,
193                int cpu,
194                u64 timestamp __used,
195                struct thread *thread __used,
196                int node)
197{
198    unsigned long call_site;
199    unsigned long ptr;
200    int bytes_req;
201    int bytes_alloc;
202    int node1, node2;
203
204    ptr = raw_field_value(event, "ptr", data);
205    call_site = raw_field_value(event, "call_site", data);
206    bytes_req = raw_field_value(event, "bytes_req", data);
207    bytes_alloc = raw_field_value(event, "bytes_alloc", data);
208
209    insert_alloc_stat(call_site, ptr, bytes_req, bytes_alloc, cpu);
210    insert_caller_stat(call_site, bytes_req, bytes_alloc);
211
212    total_requested += bytes_req;
213    total_allocated += bytes_alloc;
214
215    if (node) {
216        node1 = cpunode_map[cpu];
217        node2 = raw_field_value(event, "node", data);
218        if (node1 != node2)
219            nr_cross_allocs++;
220    }
221    nr_allocs++;
222}
223
224static int ptr_cmp(struct alloc_stat *, struct alloc_stat *);
225static int callsite_cmp(struct alloc_stat *, struct alloc_stat *);
226
227static struct alloc_stat *search_alloc_stat(unsigned long ptr,
228                        unsigned long call_site,
229                        struct rb_root *root,
230                        sort_fn_t sort_fn)
231{
232    struct rb_node *node = root->rb_node;
233    struct alloc_stat key = { .ptr = ptr, .call_site = call_site };
234
235    while (node) {
236        struct alloc_stat *data;
237        int cmp;
238
239        data = rb_entry(node, struct alloc_stat, node);
240
241        cmp = sort_fn(&key, data);
242        if (cmp < 0)
243            node = node->rb_left;
244        else if (cmp > 0)
245            node = node->rb_right;
246        else
247            return data;
248    }
249    return NULL;
250}
251
252static void process_free_event(void *data,
253                   struct event *event,
254                   int cpu,
255                   u64 timestamp __used,
256                   struct thread *thread __used)
257{
258    unsigned long ptr;
259    struct alloc_stat *s_alloc, *s_caller;
260
261    ptr = raw_field_value(event, "ptr", data);
262
263    s_alloc = search_alloc_stat(ptr, 0, &root_alloc_stat, ptr_cmp);
264    if (!s_alloc)
265        return;
266
267    if (cpu != s_alloc->alloc_cpu) {
268        s_alloc->pingpong++;
269
270        s_caller = search_alloc_stat(0, s_alloc->call_site,
271                         &root_caller_stat, callsite_cmp);
272        assert(s_caller);
273        s_caller->pingpong++;
274    }
275    s_alloc->alloc_cpu = -1;
276}
277
278static void process_raw_event(union perf_event *raw_event __used, void *data,
279                  int cpu, u64 timestamp, struct thread *thread)
280{
281    struct event *event;
282    int type;
283
284    type = trace_parse_common_type(data);
285    event = trace_find_event(type);
286
287    if (!strcmp(event->name, "kmalloc") ||
288        !strcmp(event->name, "kmem_cache_alloc")) {
289        process_alloc_event(data, event, cpu, timestamp, thread, 0);
290        return;
291    }
292
293    if (!strcmp(event->name, "kmalloc_node") ||
294        !strcmp(event->name, "kmem_cache_alloc_node")) {
295        process_alloc_event(data, event, cpu, timestamp, thread, 1);
296        return;
297    }
298
299    if (!strcmp(event->name, "kfree") ||
300        !strcmp(event->name, "kmem_cache_free")) {
301        process_free_event(data, event, cpu, timestamp, thread);
302        return;
303    }
304}
305
306static int process_sample_event(union perf_event *event,
307                struct perf_sample *sample,
308                struct perf_evsel *evsel __used,
309                struct perf_session *session)
310{
311    struct thread *thread = perf_session__findnew(session, event->ip.pid);
312
313    if (thread == NULL) {
314        pr_debug("problem processing %d event, skipping it.\n",
315             event->header.type);
316        return -1;
317    }
318
319    dump_printf(" ... thread: %s:%d\n", thread->comm, thread->pid);
320
321    process_raw_event(event, sample->raw_data, sample->cpu,
322              sample->time, thread);
323
324    return 0;
325}
326
327static struct perf_event_ops event_ops = {
328    .sample = process_sample_event,
329    .comm = perf_event__process_comm,
330    .ordered_samples = true,
331};
332
333static double fragmentation(unsigned long n_req, unsigned long n_alloc)
334{
335    if (n_alloc == 0)
336        return 0.0;
337    else
338        return 100.0 - (100.0 * n_req / n_alloc);
339}
340
341static void __print_result(struct rb_root *root, struct perf_session *session,
342               int n_lines, int is_caller)
343{
344    struct rb_node *next;
345    struct machine *machine;
346
347    printf("%.102s\n", graph_dotted_line);
348    printf(" %-34s |", is_caller ? "Callsite": "Alloc Ptr");
349    printf(" Total_alloc/Per | Total_req/Per | Hit | Ping-pong | Frag\n");
350    printf("%.102s\n", graph_dotted_line);
351
352    next = rb_first(root);
353
354    machine = perf_session__find_host_machine(session);
355    if (!machine) {
356        pr_err("__print_result: couldn't find kernel information\n");
357        return;
358    }
359    while (next && n_lines--) {
360        struct alloc_stat *data = rb_entry(next, struct alloc_stat,
361                           node);
362        struct symbol *sym = NULL;
363        struct map *map;
364        char buf[BUFSIZ];
365        u64 addr;
366
367        if (is_caller) {
368            addr = data->call_site;
369            if (!raw_ip)
370                sym = machine__find_kernel_function(machine, addr, &map, NULL);
371        } else
372            addr = data->ptr;
373
374        if (sym != NULL)
375            snprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), "%s+%" PRIx64 "", sym->name,
376                 addr - map->unmap_ip(map, sym->start));
377        else
378            snprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), "%#" PRIx64 "", addr);
379        printf(" %-34s |", buf);
380
381        printf(" %9llu/%-5lu | %9llu/%-5lu | %8lu | %8lu | %6.3f%%\n",
382               (unsigned long long)data->bytes_alloc,
383               (unsigned long)data->bytes_alloc / data->hit,
384               (unsigned long long)data->bytes_req,
385               (unsigned long)data->bytes_req / data->hit,
386               (unsigned long)data->hit,
387               (unsigned long)data->pingpong,
388               fragmentation(data->bytes_req, data->bytes_alloc));
389
390        next = rb_next(next);
391    }
392
393    if (n_lines == -1)
394        printf(" ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... \n");
395
396    printf("%.102s\n", graph_dotted_line);
397}
398
399static void print_summary(void)
400{
401    printf("\nSUMMARY\n=======\n");
402    printf("Total bytes requested: %lu\n", total_requested);
403    printf("Total bytes allocated: %lu\n", total_allocated);
404    printf("Total bytes wasted on internal fragmentation: %lu\n",
405           total_allocated - total_requested);
406    printf("Internal fragmentation: %f%%\n",
407           fragmentation(total_requested, total_allocated));
408    printf("Cross CPU allocations: %lu/%lu\n", nr_cross_allocs, nr_allocs);
409}
410
411static void print_result(struct perf_session *session)
412{
413    if (caller_flag)
414        __print_result(&root_caller_sorted, session, caller_lines, 1);
415    if (alloc_flag)
416        __print_result(&root_alloc_sorted, session, alloc_lines, 0);
417    print_summary();
418}
419
420struct sort_dimension {
421    const char name[20];
422    sort_fn_t cmp;
423    struct list_head list;
424};
425
426static LIST_HEAD(caller_sort);
427static LIST_HEAD(alloc_sort);
428
429static void sort_insert(struct rb_root *root, struct alloc_stat *data,
430            struct list_head *sort_list)
431{
432    struct rb_node **new = &(root->rb_node);
433    struct rb_node *parent = NULL;
434    struct sort_dimension *sort;
435
436    while (*new) {
437        struct alloc_stat *this;
438        int cmp = 0;
439
440        this = rb_entry(*new, struct alloc_stat, node);
441        parent = *new;
442
443        list_for_each_entry(sort, sort_list, list) {
444            cmp = sort->cmp(data, this);
445            if (cmp)
446                break;
447        }
448
449        if (cmp > 0)
450            new = &((*new)->rb_left);
451        else
452            new = &((*new)->rb_right);
453    }
454
455    rb_link_node(&data->node, parent, new);
456    rb_insert_color(&data->node, root);
457}
458
459static void __sort_result(struct rb_root *root, struct rb_root *root_sorted,
460              struct list_head *sort_list)
461{
462    struct rb_node *node;
463    struct alloc_stat *data;
464
465    for (;;) {
466        node = rb_first(root);
467        if (!node)
468            break;
469
470        rb_erase(node, root);
471        data = rb_entry(node, struct alloc_stat, node);
472        sort_insert(root_sorted, data, sort_list);
473    }
474}
475
476static void sort_result(void)
477{
478    __sort_result(&root_alloc_stat, &root_alloc_sorted, &alloc_sort);
479    __sort_result(&root_caller_stat, &root_caller_sorted, &caller_sort);
480}
481
482static int __cmd_kmem(void)
483{
484    int err = -EINVAL;
485    struct perf_session *session = perf_session__new(input_name, O_RDONLY,
486                             0, false, &event_ops);
487    if (session == NULL)
488        return -ENOMEM;
489
490    if (perf_session__create_kernel_maps(session) < 0)
491        goto out_delete;
492
493    if (!perf_session__has_traces(session, "kmem record"))
494        goto out_delete;
495
496    setup_pager();
497    err = perf_session__process_events(session, &event_ops);
498    if (err != 0)
499        goto out_delete;
500    sort_result();
501    print_result(session);
502out_delete:
503    perf_session__delete(session);
504    return err;
505}
506
507static const char * const kmem_usage[] = {
508    "perf kmem [<options>] {record|stat}",
509    NULL
510};
511
512static int ptr_cmp(struct alloc_stat *l, struct alloc_stat *r)
513{
514    if (l->ptr < r->ptr)
515        return -1;
516    else if (l->ptr > r->ptr)
517        return 1;
518    return 0;
519}
520
521static struct sort_dimension ptr_sort_dimension = {
522    .name = "ptr",
523    .cmp = ptr_cmp,
524};
525
526static int callsite_cmp(struct alloc_stat *l, struct alloc_stat *r)
527{
528    if (l->call_site < r->call_site)
529        return -1;
530    else if (l->call_site > r->call_site)
531        return 1;
532    return 0;
533}
534
535static struct sort_dimension callsite_sort_dimension = {
536    .name = "callsite",
537    .cmp = callsite_cmp,
538};
539
540static int hit_cmp(struct alloc_stat *l, struct alloc_stat *r)
541{
542    if (l->hit < r->hit)
543        return -1;
544    else if (l->hit > r->hit)
545        return 1;
546    return 0;
547}
548
549static struct sort_dimension hit_sort_dimension = {
550    .name = "hit",
551    .cmp = hit_cmp,
552};
553
554static int bytes_cmp(struct alloc_stat *l, struct alloc_stat *r)
555{
556    if (l->bytes_alloc < r->bytes_alloc)
557        return -1;
558    else if (l->bytes_alloc > r->bytes_alloc)
559        return 1;
560    return 0;
561}
562
563static struct sort_dimension bytes_sort_dimension = {
564    .name = "bytes",
565    .cmp = bytes_cmp,
566};
567
568static int frag_cmp(struct alloc_stat *l, struct alloc_stat *r)
569{
570    double x, y;
571
572    x = fragmentation(l->bytes_req, l->bytes_alloc);
573    y = fragmentation(r->bytes_req, r->bytes_alloc);
574
575    if (x < y)
576        return -1;
577    else if (x > y)
578        return 1;
579    return 0;
580}
581
582static struct sort_dimension frag_sort_dimension = {
583    .name = "frag",
584    .cmp = frag_cmp,
585};
586
587static int pingpong_cmp(struct alloc_stat *l, struct alloc_stat *r)
588{
589    if (l->pingpong < r->pingpong)
590        return -1;
591    else if (l->pingpong > r->pingpong)
592        return 1;
593    return 0;
594}
595
596static struct sort_dimension pingpong_sort_dimension = {
597    .name = "pingpong",
598    .cmp = pingpong_cmp,
599};
600
601static struct sort_dimension *avail_sorts[] = {
602    &ptr_sort_dimension,
603    &callsite_sort_dimension,
604    &hit_sort_dimension,
605    &bytes_sort_dimension,
606    &frag_sort_dimension,
607    &pingpong_sort_dimension,
608};
609
610#define NUM_AVAIL_SORTS \
611    (int)(sizeof(avail_sorts) / sizeof(struct sort_dimension *))
612
613static int sort_dimension__add(const char *tok, struct list_head *list)
614{
615    struct sort_dimension *sort;
616    int i;
617
618    for (i = 0; i < NUM_AVAIL_SORTS; i++) {
619        if (!strcmp(avail_sorts[i]->name, tok)) {
620            sort = malloc(sizeof(*sort));
621            if (!sort)
622                die("malloc");
623            memcpy(sort, avail_sorts[i], sizeof(*sort));
624            list_add_tail(&sort->list, list);
625            return 0;
626        }
627    }
628
629    return -1;
630}
631
632static int setup_sorting(struct list_head *sort_list, const char *arg)
633{
634    char *tok;
635    char *str = strdup(arg);
636
637    if (!str)
638        die("strdup");
639
640    while (true) {
641        tok = strsep(&str, ",");
642        if (!tok)
643            break;
644        if (sort_dimension__add(tok, sort_list) < 0) {
645            error("Unknown --sort key: '%s'", tok);
646            return -1;
647        }
648    }
649
650    free(str);
651    return 0;
652}
653
654static int parse_sort_opt(const struct option *opt __used,
655              const char *arg, int unset __used)
656{
657    if (!arg)
658        return -1;
659
660    if (caller_flag > alloc_flag)
661        return setup_sorting(&caller_sort, arg);
662    else
663        return setup_sorting(&alloc_sort, arg);
664
665    return 0;
666}
667
668static int parse_caller_opt(const struct option *opt __used,
669              const char *arg __used, int unset __used)
670{
671    caller_flag = (alloc_flag + 1);
672    return 0;
673}
674
675static int parse_alloc_opt(const struct option *opt __used,
676              const char *arg __used, int unset __used)
677{
678    alloc_flag = (caller_flag + 1);
679    return 0;
680}
681
682static int parse_line_opt(const struct option *opt __used,
683              const char *arg, int unset __used)
684{
685    int lines;
686
687    if (!arg)
688        return -1;
689
690    lines = strtoul(arg, NULL, 10);
691
692    if (caller_flag > alloc_flag)
693        caller_lines = lines;
694    else
695        alloc_lines = lines;
696
697    return 0;
698}
699
700static const struct option kmem_options[] = {
701    OPT_STRING('i', "input", &input_name, "file",
702           "input file name"),
703    OPT_CALLBACK_NOOPT(0, "caller", NULL, NULL,
704               "show per-callsite statistics",
705               parse_caller_opt),
706    OPT_CALLBACK_NOOPT(0, "alloc", NULL, NULL,
707               "show per-allocation statistics",
708               parse_alloc_opt),
709    OPT_CALLBACK('s', "sort", NULL, "key[,key2...]",
710             "sort by keys: ptr, call_site, bytes, hit, pingpong, frag",
711             parse_sort_opt),
712    OPT_CALLBACK('l', "line", NULL, "num",
713             "show n lines",
714             parse_line_opt),
715    OPT_BOOLEAN(0, "raw-ip", &raw_ip, "show raw ip instead of symbol"),
716    OPT_END()
717};
718
719static const char *record_args[] = {
720    "record",
721    "-a",
722    "-R",
723    "-f",
724    "-c", "1",
725    "-e", "kmem:kmalloc",
726    "-e", "kmem:kmalloc_node",
727    "-e", "kmem:kfree",
728    "-e", "kmem:kmem_cache_alloc",
729    "-e", "kmem:kmem_cache_alloc_node",
730    "-e", "kmem:kmem_cache_free",
731};
732
733static int __cmd_record(int argc, const char **argv)
734{
735    unsigned int rec_argc, i, j;
736    const char **rec_argv;
737
738    rec_argc = ARRAY_SIZE(record_args) + argc - 1;
739    rec_argv = calloc(rec_argc + 1, sizeof(char *));
740
741    if (rec_argv == NULL)
742        return -ENOMEM;
743
744    for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(record_args); i++)
745        rec_argv[i] = strdup(record_args[i]);
746
747    for (j = 1; j < (unsigned int)argc; j++, i++)
748        rec_argv[i] = argv[j];
749
750    return cmd_record(i, rec_argv, NULL);
751}
752
753int cmd_kmem(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix __used)
754{
755    argc = parse_options(argc, argv, kmem_options, kmem_usage, 0);
756
757    if (!argc)
758        usage_with_options(kmem_usage, kmem_options);
759
760    symbol__init();
761
762    if (!strncmp(argv[0], "rec", 3)) {
763        return __cmd_record(argc, argv);
764    } else if (!strcmp(argv[0], "stat")) {
765        setup_cpunode_map();
766
767        if (list_empty(&caller_sort))
768            setup_sorting(&caller_sort, default_sort_order);
769        if (list_empty(&alloc_sort))
770            setup_sorting(&alloc_sort, default_sort_order);
771
772        return __cmd_kmem();
773    } else
774        usage_with_options(kmem_usage, kmem_options);
775
776    return 0;
777}
778
779

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