Root/fisl2011/talk.tex

Source at commit 1c331b3b5c91d51b1b5e1ea20bfca14e0204b8bc created 8 years 1 month ago.
By Werner Almesberger, m1rc3/norruption/2/Makefile: target "tar" to collect raw data files needed for further analysis
1\documentclass[14pt,trans]{beamer}
2\usepackage{color}
3\usepackage{url}
4\usepackage{colortbl}
5\usepackage{soul}
6\usefonttheme{structurebold}
7\setbeamertemplate{navigation symbols}{}
8\setbeamertemplate{items}[ball]
9%\setbeamersize{sidebar width left=-5mm}
10\title{\Large Making Copyleft Hardware}
11\author{Werner Almesberger \\\url{werner@almesberger.net}}
12\date{June 30, 2011}
13
14\setul{}{1.5pt}
15
16\begin{document}
17
18\begin{frame}
19\titlepage
20\end{frame}
21
22% --- Overview ----------------------------------------------------------------
23
24\begin{frame}{Overview}
25\begin{itemize}
26  \item Copyleft Hardware: what and why ?
27  \item Tools
28  \item Qi-Hardware projects
29  \item DOs and DON'Ts
30\end{itemize}
31\end{frame}
32
33% --- What is Copyleft Hardware -----------------------------------------------
34
35\begin{frame}{What is Copyleft Hardware ?}
36\begin{itemize}
37  \item Principles similar to Free Software, \\
38    applied to hardware
39  \item Design {\color{red}\underline{and}} manufacturing
40  \item All material under open licenses: \\
41    GPL, GFDL, CC-BY, CC-BY-SA
42  \item Friendly to Free Software
43\end{itemize}
44\end{frame}
45
46% --- Hardware vs. Software ---------------------------------------------------
47
48\begin{frame}{Hardware vs. Software}
49\setlength\minrowclearance{4pt}
50\setlength\arrayrulewidth{1pt}
51\begin{tabular}{|l|l|l|}
52  \hline
53  \rowcolor[rgb]{0.9,0.9,0.5}
54  \bf Concept &\bf Software & \bf Hardware \\
55  \hline
56  Source & Program text & Schematics, Layout \\
57  \rowcolor[gray]{0.9}
58  Editor & Text editor & EDA system \\
59  Conversion & Compiler, etc. & EDA system \\
60  \rowcolor[gray]{0.9}
61  Testing & Run & Prototype(s) \\
62  Debugging & Debugger & Lab instruments \\
63  \rowcolor[gray]{0.9}
64  Duplication & Download & Manufacturing, \\
65  \rowcolor[gray]{0.9}
66            & (perfect copy) & Testing \\
67  Distribution & Internet & Shipping, Customs \\
68  \hline
69\end{tabular}
70\end{frame}
71
72% --- The Four Freedoms -------------------------------------------------------
73
74\begin{frame}{The Four Freedoms}
75
76According to The Free Software Definition: $[1]$
77
78\begin{enumerate}
79  \item[0]<2-> Run the program
80    \begin{itemize}
81       \item Use the hardware
82    \end{itemize}
83  \item[1]<3-> Study the source
84    \begin{itemize}
85      \item Study design files (schematics and layout)
86    \end{itemize}
87  \item[1]<4-> Adapt the source to your needs
88    \begin{itemize}
89      \item Adapt design files
90      \item Access to the tools
91    \end{itemize}
92  \item[2$-$3]<5-> Redistribute copies (including modifications)
93    \begin{itemize}
94      \item Redistribute design files
95      \item Build or produce the hardware
96    \end{itemize}
97\end{enumerate}
98
99{\small $[1]$~\url{http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.html}}
100\end{frame}
101
102% --- Why Copyleft Hardware ---------------------------------------------------
103
104\begin{frame}{Why Copyleft Hardware ?}
105One can $\ldots$
106\setbeamertemplate{items}[default]
107\begin{itemize}
108  \item learn from it (also small details)
109  \item know what is happening inside the ``black box''
110    \begin{itemize}
111      \item No spyware
112      \item Analyze (mis)behaviour
113    \end{itemize}
114  \item adapt design for new uses or contexts
115  \item reuse parts of design in other projects
116  \item achieve longevity by $\ldots$
117    \begin{itemize}
118      \item fixing/updating/enhancing the design
119      \item repairing/modifying devices
120      \item producing more/updated devices
121    \end{itemize}
122  \item choose suitable manufacturing site
123\end{itemize}
124\end{frame}
125
126% --- Workflow ----------------------------------------------------------------
127
128\begin{frame}{Workflow}
129\begin{center}
130  \includegraphics[width=1.1\textwidth]{flow.pdf}
131\end{center}
132\end{frame}
133
134% --- Tools: KiCad ------------------------------------------------------------
135
136\begin{frame}{Tools: KiCad}
137\begin{center}
138  \includegraphics[height=50mm]{kicad.png}
139\end{center}
140\begin{columns}
141  \begin{column}{12cm}
142    \begin{itemize}
143      \item Main devs: Jean-Pierre Charras, Dick Hollenbeck
144      \item Complete EDA solution
145      \item Text files $\rightarrow$ extensible
146      \item Free Software: GPL, LGPL
147    \end{itemize}
148  \end{column}
149\end{columns}
150\end{frame}
151
152% --- Tools: Schematics History -----------------------------------------------
153
154\begin{frame}{Tools: Schematics History}
155\begin{center}
156  \includegraphics[height=4.5cm]{schhist.png}
157  \qquad
158  \includegraphics[height=4cm]{USB.png}
159\end{center}
160\begin{itemize}
161  \item Schematics revision history
162  \item Visual highlighting of changes
163  \item Web output (HTML, PNG, PDF)
164\end{itemize}
165\end{frame}
166
167% --- Tools: Footprint Editor (fped) ------------------------------------------
168
169\begin{frame}{Tools: Footprint Editor (fped)}
170\begin{center}
171  \includegraphics[height=6cm]{fped.png}
172\end{center}
173\begin{itemize}
174  \item Parametric
175  \item GUI or text-based
176  \item Automatic measurements
177\end{itemize}
178\end{frame}
179
180% --- More Tools --------------------------------------------------------------
181
182\begin{frame}{More Tools}
183\begin{columns}
184  \begin{column}[l]{8cm}
185    \begin{itemize}
186      \item Data sheet viewer (dsv)
187        \begin{itemize}
188      \item Work around non-distribution
189      \item Download and cache
190      \item Quick access \\
191        {\tt dsv mcu}
192        \end{itemize}
193      \item Gerber renderer (prettygerbv)
194        \begin{itemize}
195      \item Combine Gerber and Excellon
196      \item Realistic coloring
197        \end{itemize}
198      \item BOM processor
199        \begin{itemize}
200      \item Select components
201      \item Find best supplier
202      \item Make shopping list
203        \end{itemize}
204      \item Makefiles
205        \begin{itemize}
206      \item Shortcuts
207      \item Fab output
208        \end{itemize}
209    \end{itemize}
210  \end{column}
211
212  \begin{column}[r]{4cm}
213    \includegraphics[width=3cm]{atusb-front.png}
214  \end{column}
215\end{columns}
216\end{frame}
217
218
219% === Qi-Hardware =============================================================
220
221
222% --- Qi-Hardware -------------------------------------------------------------
223
224\begin{frame}{Qi-Hardware}
225\begin{itemize}
226  \item Started by ex-Openmokoers
227  \item Collection of loosely connected projects
228  \item Copyleft Hardware with Free Software
229  \item Development and manufacturing
230\end{itemize}
231
232Products:
233\begin{itemize}
234  \item Ben NanoNote (Handheld computer)
235  \item SIE (Development board)
236  \item Universal Breakout Board (UBB)
237  \item Ben-WPAN (IEEE 802.15.4 wireless)
238  \item Milkymist One (FPGA-based Video synthesizer)
239\end{itemize}
240\end{frame}
241
242% --- Ben NanoNote ------------------------------------------------------------
243
244\begin{frame}{Ben NanoNote}
245
246\begin{center}
247  \includegraphics[height=2.5cm]{Nano_cola.jpg}
248\end{center}
249\begin{columns}
250  \begin{column}[r]{6cm}
251    \begin{itemize}
252      \item Objective: validate manufacturing process
253      \item OEM dictionary design
254      \item Runs Linux: OpenWrt, Jlime (OE-based)
255      \item 336 MHz MIPS CPU (Ingenic Jz4720)
256      \item 32MB RAM, 2GB NAND
257    \end{itemize}
258  \end{column}
259  \begin{column}[r]{6.5cm}
260    \begin{itemize}
261      \item QVGA LCD, keyboard
262      \item USB device, 8:10 card, audio
263      \item Manufactured by Sharism at Work Ltd.
264      \item $\approx$1300 units sold
265      \item Schematics open (KiCad)
266    \end{itemize}
267  \end{column}
268\end{columns}
269\end{frame}
270
271% --- SIE ---------------------------------------------------------------------
272
273\begin{frame}{SIE}
274
275\begin{center}
276  \includegraphics[width=38mm]{SIE_KICAD.png}
277\end{center}
278
279\begin{itemize}
280  \item Objective: development board (educational)
281  \item Loosely based on Ben design
282  \item Joint work of
283    \begin{itemize}
284      \item Universidad Nacional de Colombia (UNAL)
285      \item Tuxbrain S.L.
286      \item Sharism Ltd.
287    \end{itemize}
288  \item Design 100\% open (with KiCad)
289  \item Continues as Linux en-Caja
290\end{itemize}
291\end{frame}
292
293% --- UBB ---------------------------------------------------------------------
294
295\begin{frame}{UBB}
296
297\includegraphics[width=40mm]{UBB_production_08.JPG}
298\quad
299\includegraphics[width=28mm]{ubb-vga-pub-plugged-medium.jpg}
300\quad
301\includegraphics[width=28mm]{ubb-vga-pub-1024-medium.jpg}
302
303\vskip10mm
304
305Universal Breakout Board
306%\begin{columns}
307% \begin{column}[l]{8cm}
308\begin{itemize}
309  \item Objective: easy DIY connection to Ben
310  \item Original idea by Rikard Lindstrom
311  \item Design 100\% open (with KiCad)
312  \item Manufactured by Tuxbrain S.L.
313  \item Example: ubb-vga
314\end{itemize}
315\end{frame}
316
317% --- Ben-WPAN ----------------------------------------------------------------
318
319\begin{frame}{Ben-WPAN}
320
321\begin{center}
322  \includegraphics[width=30mm]{Atben_atusb_prod_03.jpg}
323  \qquad
324  \includegraphics[width=50mm]{Atben_atusb_prod_05.jpg}
325\end{center}
326\begin{columns}
327  \begin{column}{12cm}
328    \begin{itemize}
329      \item Objective: unencumbered wireless for the Ben
330      \item IEEE 802.15.4 (LR-WPAN)
331      \item 250 kbps (2 Mbps non-standard)
332      \item Ben 8:10 card (atben), USB (atusb)
333      \item Designed by Werner Almesberger
334      \item Design 100\% open (with KiCad)
335      \item Largely automated fabrication workflow
336      \item Manufactured by \st{Sharism} Tuxbrain S.L.
337    \end{itemize}
338  \end{column}
339\end{columns}
340\end{frame}
341
342% --- Milkymist One -----------------------------------------------------------
343
344\begin{frame}{Milkymist One}
345
346\begin{columns}
347  \begin{column}[l]{4cm}
348   \includegraphics[width=5cm]{M1_dmx_video.jpg}
349  \end{column}
350  \begin{column}[r]{9cm}
351    \begin{itemize}
352      \item Video synthesizer
353      \item By ``one man army'' Sebastien Bourdeauducq
354      \item Video in/out, audio, Ethernet, USB host, MIDI, $\ldots$
355      \item FPGA-based (Lattice LM32 core)
356      \item Verilog under GPL
357      \item Proprietary FPGA tools
358      \item LLHDL: work on Open synthesis tool
359      \item Design files open (use Altium)
360      \item Manufactured by Sharism
361    \end{itemize}
362  \end{column}
363\end{columns}
364\end{frame}
365
366% --- Freedoms Status ---------------------------------------------------------
367
368\begin{frame}{Freedom Status}
369\includegraphics[height=0.9\textheight]{achieve.pdf}
370\end{frame}
371
372% --- Running an Open Hardware Project ----------------------------------------
373
374\begin{frame}{Running an Open Hardware Project}
375\begin{columns}
376  \begin{column}{12cm}
377    \begin{itemize}
378      \item Have clear objectives
379      \item Create opportunities to participate
380      \item Pick your challenges wisely
381    \begin{itemize}
382      \item Set realistic goals
383      \item Know what you can sacrifice
384      \item Pay attention to manufacturability
385    \end{itemize}
386      \item Think about what follows
387    \end{itemize}
388  \end{column}
389\end{columns}
390\end{frame}
391
392% --- Common Misconceptions ---------------------------------------------------
393
394\begin{frame}{Common Misconceptions}
395\begin{columns}
396  \begin{column}{12cm}
397    \begin{itemize}
398      \item ``Let's make an iPhone/iPad''
399    \begin{itemize}
400      \item Bleeding edge components are hard to get
401      \item They are hard to design for
402      \item They are expensive
403      \item There is fierce competition
404      \item You're joining the race late
405      \item ``Boy, did we patent it !''
406    \end{itemize}
407      \item ``There is no tomorrow'' or ``It must be perfect''
408    \begin{itemize}
409      \item Rampant featuritis \\
410        $\Rightarrow$ Delays
411      \item Try to be as up to date as possible \\
412        $\Rightarrow$ Redesigns $\Leftrightarrow$ Delays
413    \end{itemize}
414    \end{itemize}
415  \end{column}
416\end{columns}
417\end{frame}
418
419% --- Sourcing Pitfalls -------------------------------------------------------
420
421\begin{frame}{Sourcing Pitfalls}
422\begin{columns}
423  \begin{column}{12cm}
424    \begin{itemize}
425      \item ``I can get any chip I see on a vendor's Web site''
426    \begin{itemize}
427      \item You are too small
428      \item Non-refundable fees
429      \item Consider documentation
430    \end{itemize}
431      \item ``Once a chip is announced, we can use it''
432    \begin{itemize}
433      \item Delays until first (buggy) samples
434      \item Some chips are test balloons
435      \item Revisions may introduce drastic changes
436    \end{itemize}
437      \item Distributors
438    \begin{itemize}
439      \item Even large distributors don't stock everything
440      \item Minimum Order Quantity
441      \item Lead time
442    \end{itemize}
443    \end{itemize}
444  \end{column}
445\end{columns}
446\end{frame}
447
448% --- Dodging Patents ---------------------------------------------------------
449
450\begin{frame}{Dodging Patents}
451Potential opponents:
452\begin{itemize}
453  \item Big players (Apple, Nokia, Oracle, $\ldots$)
454  \item Licensing firms (Sisvel, MPEG-LA, $\ldots$)
455  \item Patent trolls
456\end{itemize}
457
458Some avoidance strategies:
459\begin{itemize}
460  \item Do not sell hardware
461  \item Stay remote, small, poor, and out of the news
462  \item Use old technology
463  \item Avoid areas of on-going patent wars: \\
464    Mobile communication, A/V codecs, Multitouch, $\ldots$
465  \item Hope for the best
466\end{itemize}
467\end{frame}
468
469% --- Conclusion --------------------------------------------------------------
470
471\begin{frame}{The Future}
472\begin{itemize}
473  \item Finishing Milkymist One
474  \item Ben-WPAN firmware and Linux support
475  \item Dreaming of Ya NanoNote
476  \item Improve tools (BOM, LLHDL, layout history)
477  \item Get better control of mechanical design
478  \item Smarter marketing: sell our story better
479\end{itemize}
480\end{frame}
481
482% --- URLs --------------------------------------------------------------
483
484\begin{frame}{URLs}
485This presentation: \\
486\url{downloads.qi-hardware.com/people/werner/fisl12.pdf}
487\vskip2mm
488The Qi-Hardware project: \\
489\url{www.qi-hardware.com/}
490\vskip2mm
491Schematics history: \\
492\url{projects.qi-hardware.com/schhist/}
493\vskip2mm
494Footprint editor (fped): \\
495\url{svn.openmoko.org/trunk/eda/fped/README}
496\vskip2mm
497Milkymist: \\
498\url{milkymist.org/}
499\end{frame}
500
501
502\end{document}
503
504% === Extra Slides ============================================================
505
506% --- Similar Projects --------------------------------------------------------
507
508\begin{frame}{Similar Projects}
509\begin{itemize}
510  \item Arduino
511  \item OpenPandora
512  \item Openmoko Freerunner
513\end{itemize}
514\end{frame}
515
516% --- Arduino -----------------------------------------------------------------
517
518\begin{frame}{Arduino}
519\begin{itemize}
520  \item Modular embedded system (AVR-based)
521  \item Easy to use environment
522  \item Very popular
523  \item Active community
524  \item CC-BY-SA, GPL, LGPL
525  \item EDA system: EAGLE
526  \item \url{http://arduino.cc/}
527\end{itemize}
528\end{frame}
529
530% --- OpenPandora -------------------------------------------------------------
531
532\begin{frame}{OpenPandora}
533\begin{itemize}
534  \item Non-open hardware
535  \item A quagmire
536\end{itemize}
537\end{frame}
538
539% --- Openmoko Freerunner -----------------------------------------------------
540
541\begin{frame}{Openmoko FreeRunner}
542\begin{itemize}
543  \item GSM Smartphone
544  \item Designed for Free Software
545  \item Got a lot of attention
546  \item ~10'000 units sold
547  \item Openmoko Inc. changed course in 2009
548  \item Schematics (PDF) available
549  \item Design files (Mentor PADS) not available
550  \item CAD files available
551\end{itemize}
552\end{frame}
553
554\end{document}
555

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