Root/fisl2011/talk.tex

Source at commit b5f61138baed4e5ad8e3d6588d5f75eafbac2a67 created 8 years 5 months ago.
By Werner Almesberger, added openness schievements; more small updates
1\documentclass[14pt,trans]{beamer}
2\usepackage{color}
3\usepackage{url}
4\usepackage{colortbl}
5\usepackage{soul}
6\usefonttheme{structurebold}
7\setbeamertemplate{navigation symbols}{}
8\setbeamertemplate{items}[ball]
9%\setbeamersize{sidebar width left=-5mm}
10\title{\Large Making Copyleft Hardware}
11\author{Werner Almesberger \\\url{werner@almesberger.net}}
12\date{June 28, 2011}
13
14\setul{}{1.5pt}
15
16\begin{document}
17
18\begin{frame}
19\titlepage
20\end{frame}
21
22% --- Overview ----------------------------------------------------------------
23
24\begin{frame}{Overview?}
25\begin{itemize}
26  \item Copyleft Hardware: what and why ?
27  \item Tools
28  \item Qi-Hardware projects
29  \item
30\end{itemize}
31\end{frame}
32
33% --- What is Copyleft Hardware -----------------------------------------------
34
35\begin{frame}{What is Copyleft Hardware ?}
36\begin{itemize}
37  \item Principles similar to Free Software, \\
38    applied to hardware
39  \item Design {\color{red}\underline{and}} manufacturing
40  \item All material under open licenses: \\
41    GPL, GFDL, CC-BY, CC-BY-SA
42  \item Friendly to Free Software
43\end{itemize}
44\end{frame}
45
46% --- Hardware vs. Software ---------------------------------------------------
47
48\begin{frame}{Hardware vs. Software}
49\setlength\minrowclearance{4pt}
50\setlength\arrayrulewidth{1pt}
51\begin{tabular}{|l|l|l|}
52  \hline
53  \rowcolor[rgb]{0.9,0.9,0.5}
54  \bf Concept &\bf Software & \bf Hardware \\
55  \hline
56  Source & Program text & Schematics, Layout \\
57  \rowcolor[gray]{0.9}
58  Editor & Text editor & EDA system \\
59  Conversion & Compiler, etc. & EDA system \\
60  \rowcolor[gray]{0.9}
61  Testing & Run & Prototype(s) \\
62  Debugging & Debugger & Lab instruments \\
63  \rowcolor[gray]{0.9}
64  Duplication & Download & Manufacturing, \\
65  \rowcolor[gray]{0.9}
66            & (perfect copy) & Testing \\
67  Distribution & Internet & Shipping, Customs \\
68  \hline
69\end{tabular}
70\end{frame}
71
72% --- The Four Freedoms -------------------------------------------------------
73
74\begin{frame}{The Four Freedoms}
75
76According to The Free Software Definition: $[1]$
77
78\begin{enumerate}
79  \item[0]<2-> Run the program
80    \begin{itemize}
81       \item Use the hardware
82    \end{itemize}
83  \item[1]<3-> Study the source
84    \begin{itemize}
85      \item Study design files (schematics and layout)
86    \end{itemize}
87  \item[1]<4-> Adapt the source to your needs
88    \begin{itemize}
89      \item Adapt design files
90      \item Access to the tools
91    \end{itemize}
92  \item[2$-$3]<5-> Redistribute copies (including modifications)
93    \begin{itemize}
94      \item Redistribute design files
95      \item Build or produce the hardware
96    \end{itemize}
97\end{enumerate}
98
99{\small $[1]$~\url{http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.html}}
100\end{frame}
101
102% --- Why Copyleft Hardware ---------------------------------------------------
103
104\begin{frame}{Why Copyleft Hardware ?}
105One can $\ldots$
106\setbeamertemplate{items}[default]
107\begin{itemize}
108  \item learn from it (also small details)
109  \item know what is happening inside the ``black box''
110    \begin{itemize}
111      \item No spyware
112      \item Analyze (mis)behaviour
113    \end{itemize}
114  \item adapt design for new uses or contexts
115  \item reuse parts of design in other projects
116  \item achieve longevity by $\ldots$
117    \begin{itemize}
118      \item fixing/updating/enhancing the design
119      \item repairing/modifying devices
120      \item producing more/updated devices
121    \end{itemize}
122  \item choose suitable manufacturing site
123\end{itemize}
124\end{frame}
125
126% --- Workflow ----------------------------------------------------------------
127
128\begin{frame}{Workflow}
129@@@
130\end{frame}
131
132% --- Tools: KiCad ------------------------------------------------------------
133
134\begin{frame}{Tools: KiCad}
135\begin{center}
136  \includegraphics[height=50mm]{kicad.png}
137\end{center}
138\begin{columns}
139  \begin{column}{12cm}
140    \begin{itemize}
141      \item Main devs: Jean-Pierre Charras, Dick Hollenbeck
142      \item Complete EDA solution
143      \item Text files $\rightarrow$ extensible
144      \item Free Software: GPL, LGPL
145    \end{itemize}
146  \end{column}
147\end{columns}
148\end{frame}
149
150% --- Tools: Schematics History -----------------------------------------------
151
152\begin{frame}{Tools: Schematics History}
153\begin{center}
154  \includegraphics[height=4.5cm]{schhist.png}
155  \qquad
156  \includegraphics[height=4cm]{USB.png}
157\end{center}
158\begin{itemize}
159  \item Schematics revision history
160  \item Visual highlighting of changes
161  \item Web output (HTML, PNG, PDF)
162\end{itemize}
163\end{frame}
164
165% --- Tools: Footprint Editor (fped) ------------------------------------------
166
167\begin{frame}{Tools: Footprint Editor (fped)}
168\begin{center}
169  \includegraphics[height=6cm]{fped.png}
170\end{center}
171\begin{itemize}
172  \item Parametric
173  \item GUI or text-based
174  \item Automatic measurements
175\end{itemize}
176\end{frame}
177
178% --- Tools: BOM Processing System --------------------------------------------
179
180\begin{frame}{Tools: BOM Processing System}
181
182@@@
183
184\begin{itemize}
185  \item ...
186  \item ...
187\end{itemize}
188\end{frame}
189
190% --- More Tools --------------------------------------------------------------
191
192\begin{frame}{More Tools}
193\begin{columns}
194  \begin{column}[l]{8cm}
195    \begin{itemize}
196      \item Data sheet viewer (dsv)
197        \begin{itemize}
198      \item Work around non-distribution
199      \item Download and cache
200      \item Quick access \\
201        {\tt dsv mcu}
202        \end{itemize}
203      \item Gerber renderer (prettygerbv)
204        \begin{itemize}
205      \item Combine Gerber and Excellon
206      \item Realistic coloring
207        \end{itemize}
208      \item Makefiles
209        \begin{itemize}
210      \item Shortcuts
211      \item Fab output
212        \end{itemize}
213    \end{itemize}
214  \end{column}
215
216  \begin{column}[r]{4cm}
217    \includegraphics[width=3cm]{atusb-front.png}
218  \end{column}
219\end{columns}
220\end{frame}
221
222% === Qi-Hardware =============================================================
223
224
225% --- Qi-Hardware -------------------------------------------------------------
226
227\begin{frame}{Qi-Hardware}
228\begin{itemize}
229  \item Started by happily ex-Openmokoers
230  \item Collection of loosely connected projects
231  \item Development and manufacturing
232  \item Copyleft Hardware with Free Software
233\end{itemize}
234
235Products:
236\begin{itemize}
237  \item Ben NanoNote (Handheld computer)
238  \item SIE (Development board)
239  \item Universal Breakout Board (UBB)
240  \item Ben-WPAN (IEEE 802.15.4 wireless)
241  \item Milkymist One (FPGA-based Video synthesizer)
242\end{itemize}
243\end{frame}
244
245% --- Ben NanoNote ------------------------------------------------------------
246
247\begin{frame}{Ben NanoNote}
248
249@@@
250
251\begin{itemize}
252  \item Objective: validate manufacturing process
253  \item OEM dictionary design
254  \item Runs Linux: OpenWrt, Jlime (OE-based)
255  \item 336 MHz MIPS CPU (Ingenic Jz4720)
256  \item 32 MB RAM, 2 GB NAND Flash
257  \item QVGA LCD, keyboard
258  \item USB device, 8:10 card, audio
259  \item Manufactured by Sharism at Work Ltd.
260  \item $\approx$1300 units sold
261  \item Schematics open (KiCad)
262\end{itemize}
263\end{frame}
264
265% --- SIE ---------------------------------------------------------------------
266
267\begin{frame}{SIE}
268
269@@@
270
271\begin{itemize}
272  \item Objective: development board (educational)
273  \item Joint work of
274    \begin{itemize}
275      \item Universidad Nacional de Colombia (UNAL)
276      \item Tuxbrain S.L.
277      \item Sharism Ltd.
278    \end{itemize}
279  \item Loosely based on Ben design
280  \item With an FPGA
281  \item Design 100\% open (with KiCad)
282\end{itemize}
283\end{frame}
284
285% --- UBB ---------------------------------------------------------------------
286
287\begin{frame}{UBB}
288
289@@@
290
291Universal Breakout Board
292%\begin{columns}
293% \begin{column}[l]{8cm}
294\begin{itemize}
295  \item Objective: easy DIY connection to Ben
296  \item Original idea by Rikard Lindstrom
297  \item Design 100\% open (with KiCad)
298  \item Manufactured by Tuxbrain S.L.
299\end{itemize}
300\end{frame}
301
302% --- Ben-WPAN ----------------------------------------------------------------
303
304\begin{frame}{Ben-WPAN}
305
306@@@
307
308\begin{columns}
309  \begin{column}{12cm}
310    \begin{itemize}
311      \item Objective: unencumbered wireless for the Ben
312      \item IEEE 802.15.4 (LR-WPAN)
313      \item 250 kbps (2 Mbps non-standard)
314      \item Ben 8:10 card (atben), USB (atusb)
315      \item Designed by Werner Almesberger
316      \item Design 100\% open (with KiCad)
317      \item Largely automated fabrication workflow
318      \item Manufactured by \st{Sharism} Tuxbrain S.L.
319    \end{itemize}
320  \end{column}
321\end{columns}
322\end{frame}
323
324% --- Milkymist One -----------------------------------------------------------
325
326\begin{frame}{Milkymist One}
327
328@@@
329
330\begin{columns}
331  \begin{column}{12cm}
332    \begin{itemize}
333      \item Objective:
334      \item Video synthesizer
335      \item By ``one man army'' Sebastien Bourdeauducq
336      \item Video in/out, audio, Ethernet, USB host, MIDI, $\ldots$
337      \item FPGA-based (Lattice LM32 core)
338      \item Verilog under GPL
339      \item Proprietary FPGA tools
340      \item LLHDL: work on Open synthesis tool
341      \item Design files open (use Altium)
342      \item Manufactured by Sharism at Work Ltd.
343    \end{itemize}
344  \end{column}
345\end{columns}
346\end{frame}
347
348% --- Freedoms Status ---------------------------------------------------------
349
350\begin{frame}{Freedom Status}
351\includegraphics[height=0.9\textheight]{achieve.pdf}
352\end{frame}
353
354% === Running a project =======================================================
355
356% --- Running an Open Hardware Project ----------------------------------------
357
358\begin{frame}{Running an Open Hardware Project}
359\begin{columns}
360  \begin{column}{12cm}
361    \begin{itemize}
362      \item Have clear objectives
363      \item Create opportunities to participate
364      \item Pick your challenges wisely
365    \begin{itemize}
366      \item Set realistic goals
367      \item Know what you can sacrifice
368      \item Pay attention to manufacturability
369    \end{itemize}
370      \item Think about what follows
371    \end{itemize}
372  \end{column}
373\end{columns}
374\end{frame}
375
376% --- Common Misconceptions ---------------------------------------------------
377
378\begin{frame}{Common Misconceptions}
379\begin{columns}
380  \begin{column}{12cm}
381    \begin{itemize}
382      \item ``Let's make an iPhone/iPad''
383    \begin{itemize}
384      \item Bleeding edge components are hard to get
385      \item They are hard to design for
386      \item They are expensive
387      \item There is fierce competition
388      \item You're joining the race late
389      \item ``Boy, did we patent it !''
390    \end{itemize}
391      \item ``There is no tomorrow'' or ``It must be perfect''
392    \begin{itemize}
393      \item Rampant featuritis \\
394        $\Rightarrow$ Delays
395      \item Try to be as up to date as possible \\
396        $\Rightarrow$ Redesigns $\Leftrightarrow$ Delays
397    \end{itemize}
398    \end{itemize}
399  \end{column}
400\end{columns}
401\end{frame}
402
403% --- Sourcing Pitfalls -------------------------------------------------------
404
405\begin{frame}{Sourcing Pitfalls}
406\begin{columns}
407  \begin{column}{12cm}
408    \begin{itemize}
409      \item ``I can get any chip I see on a vendor's Web site''
410    \begin{itemize}
411      \item You are too small
412      \item Non-refundable fees
413      \item Consider documentation
414    \end{itemize}
415      \item ``Once a chip is announced, we can use it''
416    \begin{itemize}
417      \item Delays until first samples
418      \item Some chips are test balloons
419      \item Need a few revisions to mature
420      \item Revisions may introduce drastic changes
421    \end{itemize}
422      \item Distributors
423    \begin{itemize}
424      \item Even large distributors don't stock everything
425      \item Minimum Order Quantity
426      \item Lead time
427    \end{itemize}
428    \end{itemize}
429  \end{column}
430\end{columns}
431\end{frame}
432
433% --- Dodging Patents ---------------------------------------------------------
434
435\begin{frame}{Dodging Patents}
436Potential opponents:
437\begin{itemize}
438  \item Big players (Apple, Nokia, Oracle, $\ldots$)
439  \item Licensing firms (Sisvel, MPEG-LA, $\ldots$)
440  \item Patent trolls
441\end{itemize}
442
443Some avoidance strategies:
444\begin{itemize}
445  \item Do not sell hardware
446  \item Stay remote, small, poor, and out of the news
447  \item Use old technology
448  \item Avoid areas of on-going patent wars: \\
449    Mobile communication, A/V codecs, Multitouch, $\ldots$
450  \item Hope for the best
451\end{itemize}
452\end{frame}
453
454% --- Conclusion --------------------------------------------------------------
455
456\begin{frame}{The Future}
457\begin{itemize}
458  \item Finishing Milkymist One
459  \item Ben-WPAN firmware and Linux support
460  \item Dreaming of Ya NanoNote
461  \item Improve tools (BOM, LLHDL, layout history)
462  \item Get better control of mechanical
463  \item Smarter marketing: sell our story better
464\end{itemize}
465\end{frame}
466
467% --- URLs --------------------------------------------------------------
468
469\begin{frame}{URLs}
470This presentation: \\
471\url{...}
472
473The Qi-Hardware project: \\
474\url{www.qi-hardware.com/}
475
476Schematics history: \\
477\url{projects.qi-hardware.com/schhist/}
478
479Footprint editor (fped): \\
480\url{svn.openmoko.org/trunk/eda/fped/README}
481
482Milkymist: \\
483\url{milkymist.org/}
484
485\end{frame}
486
487
488\end{document}
489
490% === Extra Slides ============================================================
491
492% --- Similar Projects --------------------------------------------------------
493
494\begin{frame}{Similar Projects}
495\begin{itemize}
496  \item Arduino
497  \item OpenPandora
498  \item Openmoko Freerunner
499\end{itemize}
500\end{frame}
501
502% --- Arduino -----------------------------------------------------------------
503
504\begin{frame}{Arduino}
505\begin{itemize}
506  \item Modular embedded system (AVR-based)
507  \item Easy to use environment
508  \item Very popular
509  \item Active community
510  \item CC-BY-SA, GPL, LGPL
511  \item EDA system: EAGLE
512  \item \url{http://arduino.cc/}
513\end{itemize}
514\end{frame}
515
516% --- OpenPandora -------------------------------------------------------------
517
518\begin{frame}{OpenPandora}
519\begin{itemize}
520  \item Non-open hardware
521  \item A quagmire
522\end{itemize}
523\end{frame}
524
525% --- Openmoko Freerunner -----------------------------------------------------
526
527\begin{frame}{Openmoko FreeRunner}
528\begin{itemize}
529  \item GSM Smartphone
530  \item Designed for Free Software
531  \item Got a lot of attention
532  \item ~10'000 units sold
533  \item Openmoko Inc. changed course in 2009
534  \item Schematics (PDF) available
535  \item Design files (Mentor PADS) not available
536  \item CAD files available
537\end{itemize}
538\end{frame}
539
540\end{document}
541

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